In a large part of the Italian Apennines, the chestnut stands are evolving towards mixed forests with a predominant presence of Castanea sativa Mill., losing the structural characteristics for the traditional fruit production. In facing this process of renaturalization, the Emilia Romagna Region recognizes the desirability of maintaining also the traditional chestnut fruit production in the Apennines, as a resource for the mountain economy and as a typical element of the landscape and tradition. Therefore, the recovery and maintenance of the traditional chestnut fruit stands can be performed on small areas (<500 m2) within the forest matrix (Art. 30, Forestry Regulations), where the more suitable conditions occur, considering both the phytoclimatic and the micro-stationary characteristics. In this framework, the project aims to assess the ecological footprints associated to the recovery of the traditional chestnut fruit stands, in terms of C sink and stock in the soil-tree system, water use and land cover.